Plenary session to highlight opportunities for safe, efficient well delivery amid escalating cost challenges
By Chris Cantu, Editorial Assistant
The 2015 SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, 17-19 March in London, will provide the global drilling industry with an opportunity to meet, network and share ideas that continue to drive technical and business innovations.
The multitude of topics to be covered include directional drilling, wellbore placement and human factors. The program includes nearly 150 papers being presented across 18 technical sessions, as well as an opening session and a plenary session.
In the opening session on 17 March, welcome remarks will be provided by the 2015 Drilling Conference Chairman Jan Brakel, Senior Manager Well Engineering with Shell.
On 18 March, Eithne Treanor, Managing Director of E Treanor Media, will moderate the plenary session, “Successfully Delivering Wells in a Changing World.” Speakers are Gary Jones, BP; Arne Lyngholm, Statoil; Khaled Al Mogharbel, Schlumberger, Ivan Tan, Shell; and Jack Winton, KCA Deutag. The discussion will focus on how the drilling industry is affected by escalating cost trends, as well as potential strategies to address that challenge.
Also on 18 March, a young professionals program will provide next-generation employees an opportunity to engage with experienced industry professionals. The half-day program will be followed by a luncheon featuring keynote speaker Catherine MacGregor, President of Europe and Africa, Schlumberger.
Editor’s note: These abstracts have been edited for space and clarity. This program is current as of 14 January. Additions, withdrawals and other changes to the conference program after this date may not be reflected. Click here for the most updated program.
TECHNICAL SESSION I: WELL OPERATION PLANNING AND HUMAN FACTORS
Assuring the Effectiveness of Well Engineering Operations Through a Companywide Internal Audit Process, A. Colt, OMV Exploration & Production; J.L. Thorogood, Drilling Global Consultant; S.A. Wirth, OMV Exploration & Production
The purpose of the paper is to describe the effectiveness and impact of internal audit procedures implemented within the OMV Well Engineering organization and to show how it ensures quality and integrity of the performance in the company’s operating units.
Probabilistic Well Time Estimation Revisited: Five Years On, A.J. Adams, K. Grundy, C. Kelly, Nexen Petroleum UK
In 2010, Nexen published a landmark paper on well time estimation (Probabilistic Well Time Estimation Revisited, SPE 119287), which for the first time allowed accurate calculation of probabilistic duration for non-critical wells. It has since been much consulted (441 downloads to date), and its data and analysis methods widely used by others. This paper broadens the method and data coverage to extended-reach and HPHT wells.
Well Cost Estimation and Control – Advanced Methodologies for Effective Well Cost Management, J.P. de Wardt, DE WARDT & COMPANY; S.K. Peterson, Risked Decisions
Managers crave greater confidence in well construction costs, from the option of a cost estimate for investment decisions, through cost estimation for budgeting, to cost tracking and control during well construction, and finally, for validity of performance tracking and benchmarking. The authors’ experiences have shown that our shortfalls in well cost estimation and control are due to three main sources: lack of defined processes, lack of discipline, and reliance on outdated or poor methodologies. In this paper, we will describe fully advanced methodologies for effective well cost management and document their benefits to decision-makers and our industry.
Experiences, Challenges and Common Recommendations from Performing HAZOP Studies to Identify Potential Hazards Associated to Surface Gas and Mud Handling Systems During Drilling Operations, C. Rubiano, P. Sullivan, F. Gil, J. Tench, BP
This paper summarizes some of the challenges encountered and the common findings from more than 50 hazard and operability studies conducted on drillships, jackups, semisubmersibles and land rigs. BP uses HAZOPs during its rig intake process to review the surface gas and mud-handling systems during drilling, well control, well completion, tripping and stripping operations.
Getting to Grips with Human Factors in Drilling Operations, J.L. Thorogood, Drilling Global Consultant; K. Lauche, Radboud University; M. Crichton, People Factor Consultants; I. Pollard, Fairfield Energy; L.B. Hviid, Maersk Drilling; B. Verweijen, Radboud University Netherlands
The paper will review the principles underlying the essential psychological concepts, such as cognitive bias, weak signals and chronic unease. It will discuss the non-technical skills needed to overcome them. It will show how human factors influences may be recognized in routine drilling operations and give examples of how biases affect decision-making.
Practical applications of human factors techniques will be described, along with methods being implemented to train and assess non-technical skills. The paper will summarize the main points that emerged from the presentations and ensuing discussions. It will be supplemented with references for further reading and highlight practical tools and insights that can be applied in day-to-day operations.
The Macondo Inflow Test Decision: Implications for Well Control and Non-technical Skills Training, J.L. Thorogood, Drilling Global Consultant
The paper uses information in published reports to review the events leading up to the Macondo loss of well control. Avoiding as far as possible the trap of hindsight, it offers alternative interpretations that might follow from the ambiguities inherent in the data and how the resulting decision would have appeared logical given the cues with which the crew was presented. The paper considers the implications of these findings on current initiatives under way in the industry relating to enhanced well control and crew training.
TECHNICAL SESSION II: MANAGED PRESSURE DRILLING (MPD) –MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE FUTURE
Elastic Pipe Control and Compensation for Managed Pressure Drilling Under Sea Wave Heave Conditions, R. Samuel, R. Lovorn, Halliburton
MPD was developed as a group of technologies to more precisely control the annular pressure profile for which accuracy of the estimation of the bottomhole pressure is important under severe wave heaves in deepwater environments. The estimation based on static state pipe movement models will result in underestimation/overestimation of bottomhole pressures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamic axial response of the drill string with friction to applied heaving velocity, with particular interest to the effect at the bottomhole pressure.
CFS vs MPD – Revolutionary Technology to Outshine Industry Leader?, J. Cunningham, A. Ozegovic, B. Grayson, J.R. Cunningham, C. Salvo-Shook, Weatherford
As the industrywide adoption of MPD continues, the recent emergence of reliable continuous flow systems is right at its heels, offering many parallels in wellbore pressure control and protection. The question then presents itself: Does continuous flow outperform conventional MPD, and will its uptake lead to the ultimate obsolescence of the current offerings, or will both coexist? This paper will examine the pros and cons of each system and their respective abilities to mitigate hazards and optimize drilling efficiency.
A Dynamic Dual-Gradient Model and Its Use for Training Prior to DGD Operations in Norway and GOM, M. Svendsen, eDrilling Solutions; K. Bjorkevoll, SINTEF Petroleum Research; R. Rommetveit, eDrilling Solutions; M. Aghito, J. Froyen, SINTEF Petroleum Research; S.I. Odegard, eDrilling Solutions; D. Molde, Statoil
The objective of the work and concept presented has been to develop and run a realistic training simulator for dual-gradient drilling. Realism in the responses that trainees see is ensured by embedding advanced real-time downhole mathematical models, which are set up with the planned configuration for each upcoming well.
Breakthrough Advance in MPD Automation: A New System Manages Narrower Drilling Window with Reduced Equipment and Crew, Y. Couturier, J. Hansen, F. Prent, P.A. Thow, Schlumberger
The drilling window for MPD operations is limited by the proven capabilities of the MPD system to operate within both planned operations and contingency situations. Existing automated annular pressure control system integrates choke control with an automated backpressure pump to best manage all states during drilling. A proprietary breakthrough in automation has enabled improved performance while reducing system complexity and equipment footprint. This paper discusses the development of this new system with subsequent field trials and the extensive acceptance testing procedures.
Developing an MPD Operation Matrix-Case History, L. Hollman, I.U. Haq, C. Christensen, T. da Silva, Blade Energy Partners; M. Ben Fayed, N. Thorn, W. Geldof, BG Egypt
This paper outlines the specific modeling required to develop an MPD well control matrix, as well as calculations required for surface equipment to ensure proper sizing, pressure limits and safety factors that are in line with the equipment specifications. Finally, it includes a comparison of the modeled data to real-time data collected while circulating out influxes using MPD.
Case Study: Using Managed Pressure Drilling and Oil-Based Mud to Efficiently Drill an Extremely Thick and Highly Fractured Carbonate Sequence Under an Extremely Thick and Highly Sensitive Laminated Shale, H.E. McGowen, Navidad Energy Resources
The objective of this paper is to provide a clear understanding of the key innovations that allowed the use of 1) oil-based mud to control shale degradation and 2) MPD to control the loss of oil-based mud. This paper provides an example from an operator’s perspective of the use of advanced drilling technology that can be applied to combat two of the most costly drilling problems: sensitive shale and lost circulation. Moreover, this paper provides a template for the application of organizational learning and continuous improvement for the implementation of advanced drilling technology.
Implementation of Managed Pressure Casing Drilling and Managed Pressure Cementing (MPC) Techniques in Unconventional Reservoirs, J.A. Balanza, L. Justiniano, I.C. Poletzky, Halliburton
Fields located in the southeastern area of the Neuquén Basin of Argentina are widely recognized for their high formation pressures and related influxes while drilling the producing section. Some of the challenges encountered when drilling using conventional techniques can lead to kicks, losses, wellbore instability and formation damage. The paper will present lessons learned and recommendations to enhance the implementation of these techniques, which can be used to optimize the overall well construction phase and improve the performance of future wells.
First Ever North Sea Deployment of Tandem DIV System Elimantes Snubbing – A Case Study, G. Mueller, Weatherford
This paper will examine how the North Sea’s first successful deployment of a tandem downhole deployment valve system created a reliable barrier that isolated the well formation pressure below the valve, thereby saving rig time, enhancing safety and cutting drilling costs.
New Automated MPD System Provides a Step-Change in Performance with a Streamlined Equipment Footprint, Y. Couturier, B. Dow, J. Hardt, T. Leonard, B. Milligan, P.A. Thow, Schlumberger
A new automated MPD system was developed with the goal of providing increased performance while minimizing additional complexity. The new system had to be capable of providing pressure trapping, manage a multistep pressure/flow pump ramp schedules, and yet maintain a similar physical footprint to and work with existing equipment. The technology was evaluated in terms of ability to control, setup time, ease of use and ability to perform the scope of work required.
TECHNICAL SESSION III: BIT TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION CASE STUDIES
Extending Bit Life Through Bearing Innovations, J. Schroder, A. AlDarwaish, J.W. Richards, M. Di Pasquale, M. Mohamed, Baker Hughes; J. Yorty, Timken
This paper will describe how some recent tapered bearing innovations in rock bits have significantly increased the life and overall performance of bits that utilize roller-cone elements.
Innovative Hybrid Bit Delivers Breakthrough Performance in a Deepwater Exploration Well on the West Coast of Ireland, C. Holub, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Ireland (Offshore); B.C. Chiniwala, J. Montgomery, R.J. Buske, Baker Hughes
A new hybrid drilling technology that combines the two primary rock failure modes of crushing and shearing was effectively deployed in the challenging drilling environment on the west coast of Ireland. It improved drilling efficiency by reducing the mechanical specific energy and mitigating stick-slip and excessive torsional oscillations.
Conical Diamond Element Bit Sets New Performance Benchmarks Drilling Extremely Hard Carbonate/Chert Formations, Perm Region Russia, V. German, Lukoil; M. Pak, M.G. Azar, Smith Bits
Developing reserves in the northern portion of Russia’s Perm region frequently requires the operator to drill extremely hard carbonates, which contain high concentrations of problematic chert lusions. Drilling the chert with PDC bits has been challenging and, in many cases, impossible due to the cutters’ inability to withstand high impact forces. The application of impreg-on-turbine gave significant improvement in run lengths, but the BHA produced less than optimal results due to high standpipe pressure requirements. The operator required a PDC bit that could efficiently drill long intervals of carbonate/chert formation at high ROP equipped with a cutting structure that would remain intact when encountering the chert intervals.
Pioneer Turbodrilling with 16 ½-in. Impregnated Bit in Deep Pre-Salt Well in Santos Basin, R. Pantoja, G. Britto, J. Buzzá, A.M. Vieira, F. Laroca, Petrobras; G. Appelshaeuser, Halliburton
This paper presents a case study on drilling a deep 16 ½-in. vertical section at a deepwater location where a turbine and an impregnated bit were used due to an extremely tough drilling scenario. This run achieved TD at over 5,000 m, marking the first record of successfully running an impregnated bit of this size.
PDC Shearing Cap Technology Protects Cutters When Drilling Out Casing Bits for Increased ROP and Bit Life in the Next Hole Section, W.W. King, Varel International; C. Leon, CT&B; M. Reese, T. Rumbos, K.W. Schader, Varel International; J. Torres Cano, Ecopetrol S.A.; H. Chevre, Perenco
Milling cap technology has been developed for the single-bit method that protects the primary PDC face cutters during the casing bit drill-out process. This paper discusses the milling cap technology and examines an initial field test. In that test, an 8 ¾-in. PDC drill-out bit with milling caps on a 1.5° bent motor completed the drill-out portion of the run in less than 15 minutes and proceeded to drill the next interval of 4,900 ft to the next casing point without incident. The ROP and footage was 5% higher than the field average. The bit showed no signs of reduced ROP after the drill-out and came out of the hole in good condition with a dull grade of 1-2-CT-G-X-I-BT-BHA.
Hydraulic Design of Shale Drill Bit Using an Integrated Numerical and Experimental Approach, A.A. Moslemi, R. Rahmani, R.B. Graham, B.S. Ivie, NOV Wellbore Technologies
Hydraulic design of drill bits specific for shale plays is challenging due to the sticky nature of the drilled formation, which may cause balling. An integrated numerical and experimental approach was used to tackle this challenge. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) along with a new particle tracking method were used to hydraulically design a fixed cutter drill bit for shale plays. Following CFD simulations, experimental tests in a pressurized drilling lab were performed to validate the CFD results.
Innovative Dual-Chamfer Edge Technology Leads to Performance Gains in PDC Bits, K. Izbinski, S. Patel, A. VanDeven, Baker Hughes
The dual-chamfer diamond cutter is a new technology created by engineering and combining a primary chamfer with a secondary edge, enabling greater footage to be drilled with higher ROP. Distance in the Mississippian field was increased by 63% while maintaining a comparable ROP to offsets and with significantly improved dull condition. The new cutter technology enables lower drilling costs and opens more drilling frontiers that were previously unprofitable.
Durable Bit Coating Reduces Shale Balling in Field Tests and Contributes to Longer Runs, S.R. Radford, S.G. Patel, K.C. Dee, Baker Hughes
A new polymer-based bit coating has been developed and is proving to be effective at reducing shale bit balling and to be significantly more durable than previous polymer bit coatings. This paper will document a previous coating from the same service company being superior in balling resistance compared with non-polymer coatings, such as metal or electrically charged coatings, and doubling the rate of penetration in a Malaysia application. A new coating has been developed and proven to have this same effectiveness but is significantly more durable. The development of this new coating, its set of requirements and its intensive testing process will be documented.
TECHNICAL SESSION IV: DRILLING OPTIMIZATION I
Well Advisor – Integrating Real-Time Data With Predictive Tools, Processes and Expertise to Enable More Informed Operational Decisions, R.R. Israel, C.J. Mason, N. Whiteley, K.A. Gibson, BP; D. Dobson, The Morphix Company; P.K. Andresen, Kongsberg Oil & Gas
This paper will share BP’s lessons learned on real-time data management from the BP Well Advisor (BPWA) project and provide an introduction to the existing functionality of each of the technical consoles being developed and deployed. It will also discuss how BP and its project partners have worked together to deliver BPWA as a total solution package. The paper will conclude with a summary of operational performance benefits derived to date from the implementation of BPWA and give a preview of new functionality being considered for potential future deployments.
A Holistic Approach to Improving Drilling Performance in Real Time: Integrating Measured, Analyzed, Modeled and Reported Drilling Data, R.J. Kucs, OMV; G. Thonhauser, TDE; M. Regan, Kongsberg; J.W. Hanson, IDS; J. Haugen, Sekal; O. Gundersen, Verdande
The concept of enterprise-level and standardized real-time data management solutions supporting drilling operations is rapidly gaining recognition with dynamic and technology-comfortable operators. Whether delivered physically in an operations center or virtually via web browser, the business drivers are clear – when presented in an ergonomic fashion, the full suite of real-time drilling and geology data enables timely, informed and collaborative decision-making, leading to performance improvement and reduction in operational and financial risk.
Drilling Performance: Efficient Integration of the Entire Drilling System, J.A. Greenwood, Halliburton
Every basis of design and the required configuration of the rig, drilling equipment and services undergo a number of iterations to balance requirements and resolve conflicting approaches. Effective design and subsequent optimization of a drilling plan require the interaction of many technical specializations in different organizations to meet the overall well objectives. To achieve maximum operational and economic performance, these diverse and specialized disciplines must interact effectively and efficiently.
An essential requirement for this interaction is a clearly defined process that allows everyone involved in design and execution to be aware of both the requirements and objectives for the well and those of other team members. Most importantly, knowledge of where the connections or touch points exist between the different domains is essential so that the implications of a change to the system can be rapidly assessed by the entire engineering team and service providers to ensure overall goals are met.
The Drilling Optimization Benefits of Direct Drill String Surface Measurements – Case Studies from Field Operations, R.B. Wylie, I.M. Soukup, H.J. Mata, S. Cuff, National Oilwell Varco; A. Ho, The University of Texas at Austin
A direct measurement system, designed by integrating drilling instrumentation into a standard top drive internal blowout preventer, makes direct-load measurements of drilling parameters along the drill string, thereby circumventing the errors of traditional measurements. This paper will review extension, uptake and applications of the technology and will present case studies to demonstrate the use of direct drill string data, with emphasis on lessons learned from high-speed data analysis for drill string dynamics.
Application of Wired Drill Pipe Technology Used to Increase Drilling Efficiency on North Sea Project, A.D. Craig, R. Teelken, NOV IntelliServ; S. Stene, P. Hayden, Conoco Phillips Norway
This paper will show examples of real-time decision-making improvements delivered on an offshore North Sea drilling project using wired drill pipe technology. The technology included early pack-off detection and drill string vibration mitigation. A detailed analysis of rig time saved by the high-speed transfer of data between downhole and surface will also be presented.
Defining Design and Optimization Method: Dynamic Simulation Model Produces Integrated BHA Solutions for Efficient Wellbore Delivery, W. Chen, Y. Shen, R.J. Harmer, S.A. Rawlins, Y. Dong, R. Chen, Schlumberger
Simulations are run to determine each BHA’s potential for axial, lateral/torsional vibration and identify the root cause and dominant mode. In difficult drilling environments, a critical aspect for success is BHA design optimization in the pre-job phase. In previous operations, modeling and run simulations have proven valuable at helping operators improve drilling efficiency, produce high-quality log data and properly position the wellbore to increase contact with the reservoir.
To further improve modeling accuracy/reliability, a dynamic modeling system was used for BHA analysis. The FEA-based system enables engineers to leverage the team’s combined expertise and full suite of drilling tools to optimize a BHA for a specific application. To mitigate steerability issues, build/walk tendencies are simulated to determine how the BHA will respond to steering command from RSS/PDM. The authors will present several conclusive case studies that document the method’s effectiveness and cost-reducing capabilities.
Look Ahead Team MXS: Transforming Knowledge in Successful Operations, E.J. Rodriguez, A. Jimenez, J.B. Angel Alvarez, H.D. Bedino, S. Scagliarini, N. Salinas, F.J. Valdiviezo Rojas, P. Mendoza, Schlumberger
The main outcome of the analysis is to deliver a predictive “look ahead” report, which contains all risks identified at least 200 m ahead of the bit together with the risk analysis matrix and the corresponding prevention and mitigation plan. Also during the program execution, the Look Ahead Team (LHT) provides technical support to the engineering and operations teams, anticipating the next action based on risk projection re-assessment using real data streaming. The LHT’s newly implemented processes/workflows and innovative analysis methodologies have been tested on 21 development wells and three exploratory wells for a total of 72 hole sections. In just one year since its foundation, unforeseen drilling events due to geological uncertainty were reduced by 90%, achieving approximately $10 million in savings.
Analysis of the Impact of Wellbore Tortuosity on Well Construction Using Scaled Tortuosity Index and High-Resolution Continuous Surveys, R. Lowdon, S. Brands, G. Alexander, Schlumberger
The techniques involved in this study are novel in their approach to delineate the expected level of tortuosity that may be expected from different wellbore trajectories and BHA drive mechanisms. This allows the ability to deal with the consequences of tortuosity in the planning phase but, more critically, while drilling. Thus, decisions on well construction delivery procedures can be made with real data, not assumptions. Recommendations stemming from this work include torque-and-drag requirements and improvements to drilling practices that will enable an improved ability to drill for completion.
TECHNICAL SESSION V: DRILLING FLUIDS
Advances in the Calculation of Circulating Pressure Drop with and without Drill Pipe Rotation, T. Hemphill, Halliburton
Annular pressure measurements have consistently shown the direct relationship between increasing drill pipe rotation speed and increasing pressure drop. A hydraulic model that accurately predicts the hydraulic effects of drill pipe rotation can improve the pressure drop calculations. However, conventional pressure drop modeling does not take into account 100% of the calculated pressure drop that is produced with the drill pipe rotation moving the fluid in helical flow. Hence, a need to better refine calculation methods is warranted.
Automated Drilling Fluid Rheology Characterization with Downhole Pressure Sensor Data, A. Karimi Vajargah, E. van Oort, The University of Texas At Austin
This paper presents a novel method to determine mud rheological parameters in real time by using downhole sensor data. The well itself is used as the equivalent of a large pipe viscometer, with pressure measurements conducted along its length using sensors placed at strategic positions in the drill string.
Contrary to traditional methods, rheology determination is performed automatically at downhole pressure and temperature, without any human interaction and without the need for any rheology measurement equipment on surface. The proposed method applies the equivalent pipe model to predict rheological parameters.
Defining Fragile – The Challenge of Engineering Drilling Fluids for Narrow ECD Windows, D.A. Knox, R. Bulgachev, I. Cameron, BP
This paper discusses the development of a set of key engineering parameters to define the benchmark for what BP refers to as “Flat Rheology Fluids.” The paper will discuss the history of the development of these parameters and how data collected from field trials was used to help refine and validate the results.
Alternate Weighting Material for High-Pressured Jurassic Wells in Kuwait – Case Histories of Successful K-Formate Mn3O4 Drilling Fluids, S.M. Jumah Al-Foudari, M.S. Al-Muhailan, A. Rajagopalan, F. Al-Qadhi, KOC
This paper will review the case histories of 12 deep exploratory wells where the K-Formate-Mn3O4 fluid was applied successfully. Issues including high rheology encountered while increasing the mud weight using Mn3O4 , fluid-related complications in drilling, and solutions developed to overcome the problems will be discussed. Lessons learned in each deep high-pressured well, mud loss scenarios and well control issues will also be discussed.
ROP Enhancement in Shales Through Osmotic Processes, E. van Oort, M. Ahmad, The University of Texas at Austin; R. Spencer, Baker Hughes; N.A. Legacy, DMK Drilling Fluids
There has been an increasing focus on efficient drilling of tight shale formations, as encountered for instance in long horizontal laterals of unconventional wells. Improvements in PDC bit designs and low-friction cutter technology have made these the bits of choice in all but the hardest formations. The question now arises where the next step-change in rate-of-penetration improvement for PDC bits will come from. The answer lies in optimizing the intricate relationship among bit, intact and failed rock, and the drilling fluid.
Using Nanoparticles to Formulate Sag-Resistant Invert Emulsion Drilling Fluids, V.B. Wagle, A. Al-Yami, Z. AlAbdullatif, Saudi Aramco
This paper presents a solution toward barite sag in an invert emulsion drilling fluid (IEF) with the use of novel nanoparticles. The use of nanoparticles was shown to prevent sag in 9-ppg, 12-ppg and 16-ppg organoclay-free IEFs in a static-aging cell held vertical at 90° and then lined at 45°. Extended sag testing with the sag-control additive at 250°F for 24 hrs and at 150°F for 60 hrs was performed. The nanoparticles-based IEFs were also contaminated and subsequently subjected to barite sag measurements.
Clay-Free High-Performance Water-Based Drilling Fluid for Extreme High-Temperature Wells, K. Galindo, W. Zha, H. Zhou, J.P. Deville, Halliburton
This paper presents the detailed study of a high-performance, high-temperature water-based drilling fluid formulated with 10-17 lb/gal densities. The fluid exhibits a stable rheological profile. For example, a 14 lb/gal formulation aged at 150°F for 16 hrs gave a plastic viscosity of 29 cP and a yield point of 22 lb/100 sq ft. After static aging for 48 hrs at 400°F, the fluid gave a plastic viscosity of 27 cP and yield point of 24 lb/100 sq ft. The new fluid maintains stable viscosity, adequate suspension, low shear strengths, shale stability and filtration control up to 400°F.
Pressure Transmission in Gelled Drilling Fluids, G.M. Oliveira, A.T. Franco, C.R. Negrão, Federal University of Technology – Paraná; R.B. Vadinal, B.S. Lomba, T.U. Fonseca, A.L. Martins, Petrobras
The current work proposes a mathematical model to explain the pressure differences, delays and attenuations observed in deepwater well operations, such as kick detection, leak-off tests, tripping and well test valve actuation. The model is based on the conservation equations of mass and momentum, deals the problem as transient and compressible and the fluid motion is admitted to be one-dimensional. The drilling fluid that is considered viscoplastic is modeled either by the Bingham or the power law equation.
Using Drill Cuttings Waste as Resource for Spud Mud, F. Taghiyev, H. Hodne, University of Stavanger; A. Saasen, Det norske oljeselskap ASA and University of Stavanger
This paper shows in detail how cleaned drill cuttings are recycled into new drilling fluid materials, which bring environmental benefits along with economical ones. The designed spud muds with application of drill cuttings are ready to be applied in a large-scale facility.
Novel High-Density Brine-Based Drill-In Fluids Significantly Increased Temperature Limit for HPHT Applications, H. Zhou, J.P. Deville, C. Davis, Halliburton
Drill-in fluids, also known as reservoir drilling fluids, are designed to minimize formation damage and facilitate wellbore cleanup. Typical water-based drill-in fluids use brines to achieve a desired fluid density and rely on acid-soluble solids, such as calcium carbonate, for bridging of pore spaces. Biopolymers, such as xanthan gum and crosslinked starch, are used as viscosifiers and fluid-loss additives for the drill-in fluids.
Unfortunately, these biopolymers begin to quickly degrade at temperatures greater than 275°F. Although a variety of synthetic polymers have been developed for drilling fluid applications at temperatures up to 500°F, these polymers are usually not effective in high-density brines and often must be used with clay materials to provide effective fluid-loss control. Therefore, clay-free, brine-based drill-in fluids for temperatures greater than 300°F can still pose challenges in high-pressure, high-temperature conditions.
TECHNICAL SESSION VI: WELLBORE PLACEMENT
Overcoming Complex Geosteering Challenges in the Cardium Reservoir of the Foothills of Canada to Increase Production Using an Instrumented Mud Motor with Near-Bit Azimuthal Gamma Ray and Inclination, A. Suh, Scientific Drilling International; J. Bradley, G. Feltham, Ikkuma Resources
The paper will present the unique challenges faced when attempting to geosteer and place the wellbore within the reservoir in the Cardium Formation. We will review the near-bit instrumented motor and discuss the workflow of how data was used from the instrumented motor to help with geosteering the well. The results will be presented, and a discussion of future work will be presented.
Assessment of the Validity of MWD Survey Accuracy Following Multistation Analysis, C. Hanak, Intuitive Machines; H.F. Wilson, M. Gjertsen, Baker Hughes
The claim of increased accuracy for MWD directional surveys processed using multistation analysis (MSA) may not always be valid, resulting in incorrect assumptions regarding the probability of well collision and target intersection. Very little information is available about the MSA methods currently in use. This paper determines if MSA can be used to reliably increase survey accuracy. The study also evaluated the validity of using the published minimum requirements to validate data against a typical MSA-enhanced error model.
High-Speed, Continuous Single Well Magnetic Ranging, C. Hanak, Intuitive Machines; R.A. Estes, Baker Hughes
The purpose of this paper is to outline a new approach to passive magnetic ranging (PMR) that eliminates the speed differential between PMR and dual-well ranging techniques, with the added benefit of providing continuous ranging output for nearly uninterrupted drilling. The new technique enables the employment of single well ranging in environments where accuracy and speed is required, such as steam assisted gravity drainage.
Innovative Fishbone SAGD Well Pair: An Integrated Approach to Efficiently Unlock the Resource Potential in Canadian Oil Sands Play, M. Ozdemirtas, Total E&P Canada; T. McGinn, J. Mejia, R. McLennan, J. Lopez, ConocoPhillips Canada
This paper focuses on planning, design, drilling execution and lessons learned along the process of realization of this fishbone well pair, which is the first design of its kind in Canadian oil sands. The Surmont Project operated by ConocoPhillips with 50% partnership of Total E&P Canada is located in the Athabasca region of Northern Alberta.
All Attitude Gyro-While-Drilling Technology Provides Accurate Surveys in High-Angle East/West Directional Wellbores Delivering Reduced Costs and Increasing the Length of the Producing Zone, K. Beattie, R. Shoup, J. Weston, Gyrodata; P. Burke, Chesapeake Energy
This paper looks at a case study where the all-angle gyro-while-drilling tool was utilized to improve the planned wellbore’s position in the east/west direction with existing wellbores in close proximity. This allowed a significant reduction in costs due to land management and environmental concerns at the project location by drilling from an existing pad. The accuracy of an all-attitude gyro-while-drilling tool enabled the client to drill an additional 1,000 ft of geological producing zone safely.
Geo-Stopping Using Deep Directional Resistivity LWD: A New Method for Wellbore Placement Using Below-the-Bit Resistivity Mapping, E.R. Upchurch, S. Saleem, K. Russell, Chevron Australia; M.G. Viandante, Schlumberger
The Deep Directional Resistivity LWD system has been successfully used to TD three wells less than 3 m above the highly permeable Wheatstone gas reservoir. The paper will cover (1) the key well design aspects that precipitated the need for the LWD system, (2) the physics and logic of the logging system, (3) the new concept for applying the system in non-horizontal applications, and (4) the observed results.
Modeling Drill String Magnetic Interference of Wellbore Surveys Using Demagnetizing Factors, W.J. Phillips, D.L. Aklestad, Schlumberger
The operational advantages of the demagnetizing factor method are presented, showing more consistency in calculation, elimination of BHA complexity limits, ease of computer implementation and system integration, and elimination of subjective and inconsistent selection of component pole strengths used in the dipole method. The method provides a means of estimated drill string interference calculation standardization across the industry.
Testing Rotary Drilling and Rotary Steerable Systems to Drill Directional Wells Through Hard, Abrasive Formations in the Tectonically Active Colombian Foothills, P.A. Silva, I.J. Villamizar, W. Terreros, O.A. Zuleta Neira, Equion Energia Limited; N. Camelo, Schlumberger; M.D. Pacione, Baker Hughes
This paper describes the learning process regarding the reduction in nonproductive time, performance improvement and costs savings to drill through very hard and abrasive formations with rotary bottomhole assemblies in large hole sizes, such as 18 ½-in. and 14 ¾-in. in a highly tectonically active area. The design considers the minimization of stabilizers’ wear by reducing the weight on bit required for building or dropping inclination angle, and adjusting the RPM to minimize vibrations.
TECHNICAL SESSION VII: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN COMPLETIONS ENGINEERING
Novel Filter Cake Breaker Design and Successful Use for OHGP Carrier Fluid, R. Bulgachev, W. Duran, G. Harpley, G.D. Hurst, R.P. Lee, A.J. Twynam, BP; T. Thay, Schlumberger; A. Sookoo, M-I SWACO
The gravel pack carrier fluid with incorporated breaker is believed to have assisted with filter cake removal and well clean-up and contributed to the fact that gas requirements from the project have been met. The paper will focus on the development of a fluids package for successful implementation in the field to deliver the wells and planned gas production.
Novel Mechanistic Modeling of Cased-Hole Frac Pack (CHFP) Well Productivity with Non-Darcy Effects and Fracture-Plane Alignment; R. Angeles, ExxonMobil Development Company; J. Yin, ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, M.T. Hecker, A.V. Podust, K.M. Dares, J.A. Burdette, ExxonMobil Development Co; H. Huang, A. Spuskanyuk, ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co
In this paper, we propose a new mechanistic approach to the cased-hole frac-pack completion with non-Darcy flow through explicitly meshed perforation tunnels, fractures and rock formation in real dimensions. The fracture is modeled by the Enriched Finite Element Method, which flexibly accounts for arbitrary fracture geometry and orientation while enabling multiphysics effects, impact of perforation/gravel packing damage and perforation-fracture communication uncertainty on deviated well productivities.
Design, Qualification, QAQC and Operational Performance of Completion Fluid, Reservoir Drill-in Fluid and Breaker – Tamar, Offshore Israel, J.C. Healy, Healy Energy; J. Sanford, Sanford Engineering; T.S. Hopper, K.J. Dufrene, Noble Energy; J.N. Fink, BP; C. Balderrama, Noble Energy; S.R. Vickers, G. Mackenzie, Baker Hughes Drilling Fluids
A case study from offshore Israel is presented that describes the successful delivery of five deepwater (5,500 ft) ultra-high-rate gas wells (300-plus MMCF/d) completed with 7-in. tubing and open-hole gravel packs. The wells are the initial development of the massive Tamar Field (10 tcf), which is the largest producing gas field offshore Israel.
Integration of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) Technology with Open-Hole Gravel Packed Completions – the ACG Field Experience, C.P. John, L.W. Ramnath, R. Khankishiyev, H. Hasanov, J. Stephenson, P. Keatinge, BP
This paper describes the DTS integrated completion system and, through case studies of wells completed in the ACG field in the last decade, highlights key learnings, procedural optimizations and equipment enhancements, as well as planned future technology improvements.
Frac Plug Drill Out Benefits From Hybrid Roller Cone Bit Design, K. Rose, K. Nobile, Varel International; V.O. Rodriguez, R. Rose, EOG Resources
This paper examines the review and design process and presents field results that include the first presentation of a 57-well study conducted in the Eagle Ford in South Texas, where the hybrid bit drilled frac plugs 13.6% faster than standard tooth bits and averaged 3.3 more plugs per bit.
Advanced Drilling Engineering Methodology Proves Robust in Preventing Mechanical Lock-up While Deploying Sand-Control Completions Through Complex 3D Drains, R.E. Studer, S. Menand, Drillscan; S. Bourgouin, TOTAL
This paper shows that the success of running completion at intended depth depends on well trajectory surveys spacing (standard vs continuous) taking into account in the torque and drag analysis. This paper illustrates a recent case of failing to reach TD while running in hole a sand control completion string in a complex 3D well drilled as part of a major deepwater development project in West Africa. The reservoir drain was lost, with the completion string stuck 170 m above TD. A costly sidetrack had to be drilled to recover the well.
TECHNICAL SESSION VIII: CASE STUDIES
Evaluating Formation Fluid Properties During Sampling-While-Drilling Operations, K. Indo, J.J. Pop, K. Hsu, S. Ossia, Schlumberger; G. Atzeni, A. Malossi, eni; V. Agarwal, A. Garcia-Mayans, S.H. Paul, J. Varughese, S.A. Haq, Schlumberger
Real-time formation fluid property and contamination estimates facilitate the management of the entire while-drilling sampling process by aiding sample capture decisions and allowing the best possible utilization of the sample bottles currently available on a drilling bottomhole assembly.
Bit Trip Optimizer: Just in Time Bit Trip Decision Model, A. Kuesters, J. Wingate, BP
This paper presents a model that aids the decision-making process to determine the optimum point to trip out of hole to change a dulled drill bit. The model optimizes the bit strategy for an entire well over multiple sections and bit runs to obtain the most economical choice of bits and bit-trip strategy. The deployment of the model is not limited to any specific application and can save costs on any well where the operator has a requirement for multiple bit runs.
Strain-Gauge Bending-Moment Measurements Used to Identify Wellbore Tortuosity, C.N. Marland, J.A. Greenwood, Halliburton
To determine wellbore tortuosity, the industry uses calculated well trajectories between survey stations in the wellbore, or back calculates the friction factors within the wellbore from surface torque-and-drag information and uses it as an empirical indication of tortuosity. Neither method provides sufficient accuracy to exactly quantify the severity and location of the wellbore macro- and micro-tortuosity. Through describing and demonstrating the use of downhole strain gauges to identify variations in hole condition and wellbore tortuosity, a significantly more accurate method of quantifying this wellbore property has been developed.
Reliable High-Speed Mud Pulse Telemetry, W. Emmerich, O. Akimov, I. Ben Brahim, A. Greten, Baker Hughes
This paper will highlight the necessary changes to further improve reliability for high-speed telemetry to enable increased real-time log density. The mud pulse telemetry system can directly enable the calculation of answers while drilling without having to limit drill rate in critical sections.
Innovative and Modular Equipment Design for Rheology and Compatibility Measurement of Complex Wellbore Fluids, S. Pks, G. Pangu, B. Gajji, Halliburton
This paper will discuss an innovative design that was developed for a fully automated slurry rheometer capable of dosing contaminant fluids to vary the composition, mix homogenously in-situ and measure compatibility between fluid systems at various volumetric compositions – all the while maintaining in-situ wellbore test conditions.
From Influx Management to Well Control; Revisiting the MPD Operations Matrix, W. Bacon, C. Sugden, O.R. Gabaldon, Blade Energy Partners
This work discusses and defines the transition between managed pressured drilling (MPD) influx management and conventional well control. The key parameters for calculating the boundaries of MPD influx management are determined and a protocol developed for smooth handover to well control operations. The protocol enables guidance to varying levels of influx management, ranging from full influx detection and removal using the MPD equipment to assisted shut-in.
MPC-Based Feedback-Delay Compensation Scheme for Directional Drilling Attitude Control, M. Bayliss, C. Bogath, Schlumberger; J.F. Whidbourne, Cranfield University UK
The automation of directional drilling is progressing with an emerging consensus for steering automation that favors a cascaded loop approach. In this approach, slower-acting outer control loops provide set point attitudes derived to meet some objective, such as geosteering, on the assumption that there is an inner faster-acting attitude tracking feedback loop.
Achieving Zonal Isolation Using Three-Stage Cementing Systems (An Australian CSG First), C. Ingram, TAM International; M.B. Zaman, Santos
This paper will present actual case histories where a three-stage cementing system has been deployed in coal-seam gas applications. Proper pre-job planning, detailed procedures and careful attention during on-site execution were key to the success of the multistage operation.
TECHNICAL SESSION IX:DIRECTIONAL DRILLING
A Guide to Relief Well Trajectory Design Using Multidisciplinary Collaborative Well Planning Technology, R.B. Goobie, W.T. Allen, B.M. Lasley, K. Corser, BP; J.L. Patino Perez, Halliburton
The paper will cover five phases of relief well design: data gathering, drilling, locating, tracking and intercepting. It will also discuss the development and pilot testing of a new software application designed to integrate these five phases into a collaborative, multidisciplinary environment, reducing cycle time and providing a systematic approach to relief well design.
Anti-Collision Considerations for Arctic and Other High Latitude Locations, C. Chatar, N. Beck, Schlumberger; D. Simeone, A. Buchanan, L. Borri, L. Occhionero, Eni Petroleum Co
A major task in directional well planning is to identify and analyze the risk of collisions. If there is a risk of collision beyond acceptable limits, risk management must be applied. The first part of this process is to collect data. The second step is to analyze the risk. The risk not only involves financial aspects but also HSE, so it is imperative that we make the right decision using the most effective tools. Failure to take the right precautions may result in potentially catastrophic human and environmental implications.
Drilling Technique Improves Directional Steering Control in Very Weak Formation and Reduces Wellbore Collision Risk, O.J. Ogwumike, Y. Ajijolaiya, E. Appleton, C. Ibrahim, Addax Petroleum; H. Schrader, N. Foekema, J.P. Ruszka, H.F. Wilson, A.A. Adams, Baker Hughes
Directional drilling control in top-hole sections through very weak shallow sediments is challenging. The formation tends to wash out, reducing steering control. The lack of reliable steering results in well kick-off-points being planned deeper than optimal, especially for extended-reach wells or under multiwell platforms where early well separation is advantageous. Additionally, when drilling in close proximity to existing wells, the risk of well collision is increased. A hybrid system was developed and has been applied and optimized in practice.
Wellbore Tortuosity Analyzed by a Novel Method May Help to Improve Drilling, Completion and Production Operations, J. Bang, O. Jegbefume, A.G. Ledroz, Gyrodata; J.H. Thompson, SandRidge Energy
The paper presents the analysis method and results from various case studies in which the tortuosity analysis has been applied to field survey data. Among the possible applications for this analysis is the identification of low-tortuosity sections for permanent installation of completion or production equipment. Tortuosity analysis may help in evaluating the drilling equipment and process, in particular the steering-while-drilling performance and for extended-reach drilling purposes.
First Time Drilling with Steerable Drilling Liner from Semisubmersible, Q. Noordoven, G. Grindhaug, M. Eidem, Statoil; N. Spreckelmeyer, Baker Hughes
Implementation of a steerable drilling liner enabled the drilling of a nearly horizontal section with several unstable palaeosol intervals without experiencing stability-related problems. The well was drilled from a semisubmersible in rough weather conditions in the Norwegian North Sea. This paper will describe the planning and execution phase, leading up to the successful drilling operation from a floating installation. The paper will also touch upon the improvements for further use of the steerable drilling liner technology.
Downhole Automation Using Spline, Catenary and Clothoid Curves Based on Minimum Well Path Energy, P. Yi, University of Houston; R. Samuel, Halliburton
A new drilling model integrated with automation algorithms is tested and applied. In this study, spline, catenary and clothoid curves are used to bring the deviated well back to the planned path. This method involves defining a target point in the planned well path and then calculating the parameters of the returning path such that we find the minimum incremental wellbore energy.
Designing and Testing a New Rotary Steerable System (RSS) for the Onshore Drilling Market, A.J. Gorrara, S. Grant, T. Kvalvik, S. Bakke, 2TD Drilling; P.J. Clark, Chevron Energy Technology Co
While RSS dominate the offshore directional drilling markets, the land-based markets are still dominated by conventional directional drilling tools. This paper will present a new RSS that is being designed and tested for the onshore markets, covering design philosophy and choices, development and testing of the system through modeling.
Spiraled Boreholes: An Expression of 3D Directional Instability of Drilling Systems, J. Marck, E. Detournay, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geo-engineering
Numerical simulations conducted using a semi-analytical model of borehole propagation show that under conditions where the drilling system is directionally unstable, the borehole oscillations reach a limit cycle that corresponds to a spiraled borehole. The objective of this paper is to establish the link between the characteristics of the spiral and the properties of the drilling system (e.g., the distance between the bit and the first stabilizer, the walk angle, and the maximum tilt of the bit).
TECHNICAL SESSION X: DRILLING AUTOMATION
Drilling Modeling and Simulation: Current State and Future Goals, J. Sugiura, Schlumberger; R. Samuel, Halliburton; J. Oppelt, Baker Hughes; G. Ostermeyer, Braunschweig Technical University; J. Hedengren, Brigham Young University; P.E. Pastusek, ExxonMobil
This paper examines the current state of drilling modeling and simulation and identifies its future goals through an extensive literature review and a summary of the panel discussion presented at the “Drilling Modeling and Simulation” Special Session at the 2014 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition (ATCE) in Amsterdam.
Overcoming Barriers to Adoption of Drilling Automation: Moving Toward Automated Well Manufacturing, A. Ambrus, P. Pournazari, P. Ashok, R.J. Shor, E. van Oort, The University of Texas at Austin
A new mathematical construct and the methodology/architecture enables one to combine information and data from multiple sources in a meaningful way. This methodology enables rapid development of intuitive control algorithms that can be understood without advanced degrees or training. The algorithm development process is simplified, allowing for well engineers to develop their own control strategies while enabling rig- and site-specific customization. Additionally, the visual nature of the methodology enables easy monitoring by the rig crew for troubleshooting purposes.
Testing the Performance Impact of Automation Applications on Different Drive Systems in Unconventional Well Development, A.P. Pink, A. Coit, J.K. Smith, J. Nieto, NOV
This paper discusses the test program implemented across a six-well drilling project in the Eagle Ford Shale in South Texas. The paper includes a detailed description of the automated applications tested: 1) a surface-located, active stick-slip mitigation device, 2) a closed-loop, high-speed downhole weight-on-bit controller and 3) an automated closed-loop, high-speed, downhole-data-driven autodriller aimed at maximizing rate of penetration while minimizing all modes of vibration.
Accuracy and Correction of Hookload Measurements During Drilling Operations, E. Cayeux, H. Skadsem, IRIS; R. Kluge, Statoil
A mathematical model describing forces affecting the hookload measurement is developed. The model predicts hookload as a function of block position, velocity and other conditions that can influence the measurement, like mud weight or whether the dolly is retracted. This paper investigates the sources of uncertainties associated with the hookload measurement and proposes methods to obtain better data quality.
Drilling Systems Automation Roadmap – The Means to Accelerate Adoption, J.P. de Wardt, DE WARDT AND COMPANY; J. Macpherson, Baker Hughes; M. Zamora, M-I Swaco; B. Dow, S. Hbaieb, Schlumberger; R. Macmillan, NOV; M. Laing, SAS Institute; A. DiFiore, QinetiQ North America; C. Inabinett, Aerojet Rocketdyne; M.W. Anderson, Shell International E&P
The Drilling Systems Automation Roadmap (DSA-R) initiative was launched in June 2013 as a cross-industry effort designed to overcome barriers to the growth of DSA, thus facilitating accelerated adoption of key advances in DSA, both onshore and offshore. The paper will describe the launch of the initiative, the process being followed and detail the status of the eight key challenges. The completed roadmap will provide managers with an understanding of the opportunities afforded by DSA and provide the tool they need to recognize how and when they should invest to realize value.
Remote Access for Whom – Driller or Hacker?, C. Morgan, C.O. Dewitt, ABS Group
For remote access to provide connection availability and integrity, cybersecurity demands attention equivalent to mechanical and structural integrity. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the pervasiveness, vulnerabilities and countermeasures inherent in remote access to drill floor operations. Ultra-deepwater drilling assets are considered. Case studies will be reviewed in detail to convey the complexity of the systems on these advanced vessels.
TECHNICAL SESSION XI: WELLBORE STRENGTHENING AND WELL CONTROL
Drilling Depleted Sands: Challenges Associated with Wellbore Strengthening Fluids, K. Chellappah, A. Kumar, M.S. Aston, BP
This paper highlights the importance of using a robust approach that takes into account a range of factors when using wellbore strengthening materials. The accurate maintenance of particle size keeps the fluid within design specifications and avoids unnecessary overdosing of materials. A laboratory attrition test developed in-house confirms walnut shell as a promising material to resist grind-down when large particles need to be retained in the system.
Managing Losses in Naturally Fractured Formations: Sometimes Nano is Too Small, S. Savari, D.L. Whitfill, Halliburton
Novel applications in the form of engineered composite, lost-circulation materials (LCM) have been successfully used to manage severe to total-loss situations in naturally fractured carbonate formations. The combination of two multi-modal particulate engineered composite LCM, with one containing a swellable component, can provide an efficient solution. Case studies will be presented from applications in North America, the Middle East and East Africa.
Time-Dependent Borehole Stability: Effect of Static vs Dynamic Mud Weight, O. Nes, Det norske oljeselskap ASA; J. Stenebråten, E. Fjaer, SINTEF Petroleum Research
The objective of this paper is to quantify how the combination of formation conditions and properties and well conditions will determine the timing for possible onset of borehole instability in shales and, thus, how to optimize the drilling. Laboratory results suggest that mud weight may be kept well below the classic static collapse limit for shorter periods of time, like those occurring at connections, without inducing borehole collapse due to the low permeability and plastic nature of the shale.
SMART Kick Detection – First Step on the Well Control Automation Journey, J. Brakel, B. Tarr, Shell; W. Cox, Noble Drilling Sevices; F. Jorgensen, H.V. Straume, National Oilwell Varco
The proposed paper will describe the progress made to date regarding developing, deploying and field testing the first step toward an upgraded kick detection system. Based on a sensitivity analysis, a system upgrade was developed for a deepwater rig in the Gulf of Mexico.
A Barrier Analysis Approach to Well Control Techniques, D. Fraser, Argonne National Laboratory; D.D. Moore, Marathon Oil Co; M. Vander Staak, Hess
The objective of this paper is to apply the risk-based techniques of barrier analysis, coupled with the utilization of key performance indicators that have a risk basis, to aid in the evaluation of well control techniques.
“Engineering” Design of Lost Circulation Materials (LCMs) is More Than Adding a Word, S. Savari, S.D. Kulkarni, D.L. Whitfill, D.E. Jamison, Halliburton
A LCM suspension model is presented that estimates the optimum drilling fluid rheology required for proper suspension. This model is capable of accommodating changes in drilling fluid density and LCM density, size or concentration. Engineering models will be discussed that could be potentially used for effective LCM designing and plan for mitigating losses.
An Experimental Study of the Swelling Properties of Unconventional Shale Oil Rock Samples Using Both Water-Based and Oil-Based Muds and Effects of Invasion on Rock Mechanical Properties, H. Emadi, M.Y. Soliman, L. Heinze, R. Moghaddam, Texas Tech University; R. Samuel, Halliburton
Knowledge of the swelling properties of shale-oil formations, as well as the effects drilling fluids, are of critical importance to wellbore stability and requires better understanding of shale-oil properties. In this study, we first determined cation exchange capacity of shale-oil core samples from the Eagle Ford and then investigated the swelling properties of the core samples. Experiments have been conducted with the samples partially submerged in distilled water, potassium chloride (7% KCl) brine, and oil-based mud.
TECHNICAL SESSION XII: DOWNHOLE TOOLS
Percussion Drilling System Combined with Hybrid PDC Bit Increases ROP and Interval Drilled on Taoudenni Basin Well in Mauritania, S.W. Powell, A. Garcia, H. Barocio, NOV; A.H. Alonso, Repsol
Drilling the Taoudenni Basin located in Mauritania has posed a costly and time-consuming challenge for operators trying to maximize profits. The formation compressive strength limits the bit selection to heavy-set PDC bits or hard-rock roller cone insert bits due to its abrasive composition. One theory to help increase the effectiveness and drilling efficiency is to add a percussion force to increase the axial energy along with a hybrid PDC bit, which includes diamond cutters along with impregnated diamond material on blades.
Utilization of Electrical Plasma for Hard Rock Drilling and Casing Milling, I. Kocis, T. Kristofic, M. Gajdos, G. Horvath, S. Jankovic, GA Drilling
Engineers have been developing advanced plasma-based technology, which significantly overcomes the conventional plasmatorches tested for rock disintegration. The most important advance in comparison to conventional plasmatorch technology is that the electrical arc with temperatures of tens of thousands of degrees Kelvin heats directly the rock, especially the radiation component, without heating of intermediate gas. Moreover, the arc creates area-wide, relatively homogeneous heat flow from spiral arc on the whole surface for a high-intensity disintegration process.
Field Testing and Applications of a Smart Flow Diverter, N. Spreckelmeyer, T. Regener, C.C. Clemmensen, Baker Hughes; M. Eidem, G. Grindhaug, Statoil
The paper will discuss the features and activation principle of a smart flow diverter, its benefits and field experience in combination with steerable drilling liner technology and how the utilization of the technology in an underreamer application resulted in an optimized bottomhole assembly design preventing previously experienced formation washouts.
The Application of a New Vertical Seeking Tool in High-Dip Formations Result in Record Vertical Wells, R. Ramones, REPSOL; H. Jerez, K. Saad, Halliburton
Wellbores in some geographies and basins can show strong tendencies to walk or drift out of the vertical profile because of high-formation dips, fractured formations, fault zones and salt domes. To maintain verticality in these challenging environments, specific technologies are required to automatically control the drilling process while maximizing the rate of penetration. A push-the-bit standalone drilling system was deployed that self-corrects, based on a pendulum activation mechanism. When the tool senses vertical deviation, the control valves that generate optimum piston pad force are activated. A biasing mechanism uses the differential pressure between the internal and external drill string to energize the control pad pistons.
Changing the Game from Steel to Aluminium Drill Pipe: Results from Full String Aluminum Alloy Drill Pipe Deployment to Enhance Extended-Reach Drilling Performance, B.A. Legarth, Brunei Shell Petroleum; J. Lehner, Alcoa Oil & Gas; V. Koinkar, Z. Mahmud, Amrtur
The paper will explore opportunities to optimize alloy drill pipe (ADP) drilling techniques such as: operating procedures and modified tools to improve performance of ADP; drilling techniques to leverage ADP characteristics, such as the lower modulus, buckling forces and tensile loads; torque and drag modeling of the ADP for drilling parameter optimization; and reduced costs through enhanced operating procedures tuned for ADP deployment, such as using smaller rigs or extending the extended-reach drilling capability of existing rigs.
Axial Oscillation Tools vs Lateral Vibration Tools for Friction Reduction – What’s the Best Way to Shake the Pipe?, R. Gee, C. Hanley, R.G. Hussain, L. Canuel, J. Martinez, National Oilwell Varco
There are many benefits to reducing friction along the drill string while drilling directional wells. Higher rate of penetration, improved tool-face control, reduced drag and reduced stick-slip are some of the benefits that have been documented in previous technical papers. This paper reviews the benefits and drawbacks of these tools and presents the results of mathematical modeling and field data to conclude which tool is more effective at reducing friction.
Application of Uncemented Solid Expandable Liner for Combined Open-Hole Isolation and Casing Repair, M. Park, P. Teasdale, Enventure International; M. Cowling, Maersk Oil & Gas
This paper will review the challenges faced by a major North Sea operator while drilling high-pressure gas stringers in a carbonate formation on a recent appraisal well. Solid expandable technology was deployed to provide zonal isolation of troublesome formations. The improved technology and increased reliability in the systems has provided a greater confidence that the systems can be deployed successfully with a lower risk factor.
Application of Modern Technology to a Multi-Position Downhole Drilling Electronic Circulating Valve and Integral Disconnect Mechanism, G.R. Hunter, Intelligent Drilling Tools; A. Ollerenshaw, Cutting & Wear Resistant Developments
This paper discusses the development of a multi-position electronic circulating valve that can be set to multiple positions by surface downlinking. The circulating valve is combined with a unique motorized disconnect clutch mechanism that is activated by sensing its environment, working through internal logic modes before being in a position to receive a surface signal to disconnect.
TECHNICAL SESSION XIII: SPECIAL OPERATIONS REVIEW
Case Study: Tapping into Corporate Domain Expertise Using a Standard Real-time Data Solution, M. Regan, Kongsberg Oil & Gas Technologies; R.J. Kucs, OMV Exploration & Production
A major independent European operator implemented a real-time data management architecture in under 18 months. The initiative supports their global organization by partnering with a vendor-neutral data management specialist to deliver a bespoke enterprise-wide solution.
The paper will cover the project through conceptualization and functional needs assessment, technical qualification, infrastructure at rig sites and offices, data hosting and quality assurance, use of industry standards, change management and workflow design, benchmarking and KPIs, and deployment and integration into daily operations.
Application of Lean Principles to Accelerate Project Development, R. Tønnessen, Statoil; R. Byrnes, M. Franco, K.D. Romaine, Halliburton
The application of lean principles, made famous in the automotive industry, to reduce the time from discovery to production on North Sea fields involved standardizing solutions, streamlining processes and creating a culture of continuous improvement to accelerate development time. The biggest challenge was getting buy-in from the entire organization, which required a relentless change management effort.
Expert Real-Time Drilling Performance Prevents Twist-offs and Reduces Bit Damage in the Permian Basin, J.A. Hood, R.H. Taylor, P. Morris, B.P. Riley, D. Plouzek, Baker Hughes; J. Wilson, M. Metz, R. Alam, BHP Billiton
This paper covers the dynamic challenges encountered along with the solutions for drilling the vertical section of six wells on four rigs used by an operator in the Permian Basin. The data and examples presented will provide an understanding of the need to manage drilling parameters real time, along with implementing better guidelines for the driller. Using this service reduced the operator’s costs by an average of 24%.
Managing Marine Geohazard Risks Over the Full Business Cycle, A.W. Hill, G.A. Wood, BP America
The paper sets out a methodology to manage marine geo-hazard risks over the “Life of License,” starting with assessments of fundamental geo-hazard complexity and manageability on entry to a frontier area, at the basin or fairway scale, and then defining an ongoing work program to support continued refinement in understanding.
Chemical Sand Consolidation – Developing a Strategic Capability Across a Wide Portfolio, D. Aytkhozhina, D. Mason, R. Marulanda, B. Orekha, J. Villesca, P. Beaumont, BP
This paper will describe BP’s experience in the area of sand consolidation. A large proportion of the wellstock requires sand management – mainly sand control completions. In some cases, chemical sand consolidation is the most effective approach. Chemical sand consolidation works by pumping chemicals downhole to strengthen the formation and stop sanding. The company has developed an organizational capability whereby this technology can be part of the toolkit and – where appropriate – can be applied with a reasonably high chance of success to add value.
Drilling with Liner Technology Enables Successful Sidetrack through Depleted Sands in Shallow-Water Gulf of Mexico, W. Bridgeman, Chevron North America E&P; K.P. Salminen, S. Rosenberg, M. Karimi, M. Pordel Shahri, Weatherford
This paper will demonstrate how drilling with liner technology was implemented to drill a sequence of depleted sands and overpressured shales in a field where conventional drilling had been problematic. An additional benefit was the exceptionally low formation damage observed during subsequent minifracs.
Improved Casing Integrity Evaluation Enables Multiple Strings Metal-Loss Profiling in Aging Wells, A. Bin Ahmad Zaini, A. Md Ali, M. Abdul Razak, E. Samaile, Petronas Carigali; W. Wa, A.M. Al Busaidy, Schlumberger
A comprehensive downhole casing integrity test had never been done on the Baronia field, about 40km offshore Lutong, Sarawak, except for conventional pressure integrity checks. An innovative approach with a combination of slim-hole acoustic borehole imaging tool and an electromagnetic imaging tool was deployed to provide insight into the casing integrity evaluation in the field of study. Three well candidates were identified, the thickness of multiples strings up to 13.375-in. casing were evaluated simultaneously utilizing the low-frequency electromagnetic wave in the remote field eddy current region.
Multiple Relief Well Planning for an HPHT Blowout in Southern Mexico, R. Varela, F.G. Iturrizaga, D.F. Patino, N.N. Atencio, D.A. Romero, O.A. Buitrago, Schlumberger; J. Pineda, PEMEX
Following a blowout incident onshore in southern Mexico in Q4 2013, surface capping control operations and planning activities of three relief wells were initiated. This paper describes the planning and design process that took place. The main objectives were to intercept the well and then kill it in a safe and efficient manner.
Norg Wells: An Evolutionary Step in Pipe-Shearing Technology, R. Horstketter, National Oilwell Varco; S. van Egeraat, Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij
The capability to produce 12 million cu m/day of natural gas requires either multiple conventional wells or two big-bore wells using 9 5 /8-in. completions. New shearing technology exists that increases the range of tubulars that can be sheared in a 13 5/8– in., 10,000-psi BOP. By means of communication between the operator and the equipment supplier, this technology has been used to allow a smaller BOP stack and, thus, a smaller rig, than would have otherwise been necessary.
Drilling with 100% Natural Gas Engines, J.S. McEvers, Antero Resources; W.D. Kent, Source Energy
This paper presents the deployment of rich-burn natural gas engines into operations. The engines cut the average cost of drilling a well by 4.1% (from $3.88 million to $3.72 million). Additionally, emissions of nitrogen oxides were reduced by 88%, carbon monoxide by 75% and particulate matter by 95%.
Well of the Future: A New Approach to Real-Time Wellbore Stability Monitoring in the Colombian Foothills, J.C. Almeida, M. Rangel, G. Rey, M.D. Pacione, Baker Hughes; C. López, A. Valdivieso, Equion Energy
With operations reaching a performance plateau, an operator and service company embarked on an ambitious project called “Well of the Future” to increase well delivery performance, utilizing current technology, knowledge and experience. The main goal was to reduce overall well construction and completion cost and time up to 30%.
Drilling Mud Cooler Opens Up New Automated Drilling Markets in Hot Hole Applications, K. El Dorry, A. Coit, C. Garza Gutierrez, J. Woolums, D. Herrington, National Oilwell Varco
This paper focuses on performance data for the overall operations on multiple wells drilled as part of a drilling automation case study in a hot-hole application in the Eagle Ford Shale. A breakthrough in mud-cooling technology allows for much lower, safer downhole temperature gradients for the safe use of downhole dynamics tools to fully automate the drilling process. During the tests, the frequency of downhole tool failures diminished from two temperature-related failures per well to zero tool failures.
TECHNICAL SESSION XIV: DEEPWATER
Developing the Next Generation of Deepwater Drilling Rig: A Unique Colloboration in Design, M.J. Leary, S. Rettie, BP America; F. Smidth, Maersk Drilling
BP announced Project 20K in February 2012 to develop its 20,000-psi deepwater capability across four distinct areas: well designs and completions; rig, riser and BOP equipment; subsea production system; and intervention and containment. BP and Maersk Drilling entered into a unique collaborative arrangement in early 2013 to develop the design for a deepwater drilling rig that is aimed at conducting operations on wells with greater than 15,000-psi pressures. This paper describes how this collaborative effort was conducted.
Tested and Confirmed: The 1,250-Ton Slip-Proof Landing String and Slip System, R. Verhoef, H. van Rijzingen, National Oilwell Varco
This presentation will address the concerns of running 1,250-ton landing strings with slips, describe the strain gauge tests conducted and analyze the data produced by the tests conducted in mid-May 2014.
Deadman/Autoshear: Managing Precharge Pressure and Temperature Uncertainty, E.H. Cole, Lloyd’s Register Drilling Integrity Services
As offshore drilling plans increase drill pipe sizes and push into deeper waters, emergency accumulator systems for BOP control are also being pushed to maximum performance conditions. Some systems have failed subsea deadman/autoshear testing despite shore calculations. Changing the accumulator precharge led to success in each case but at the expense of costly stack pulls. This paper explores the causes of these failures and provides a strategy to help prevent similar avoidable downtime events.
New Routes to Achieving Well Integrity in Challenging Well Scenarios, J.M. McNicol, S. Bakken, Archer; S. Haavardstein, ConocoPhillips
In a recent North Sea well, an overburden section with weak zones, faults and a shallow-set 13 3/8-in. casing shoe represented a significant challenge to achieve annular integrity during well construction. The paper will discuss in detail the technical challenges of the operation, how they were overcome and the opportunities arising from using gas-tight selective opening cementing valves.
Blowout Well Flow Simulation for Deepwater Drilling Using High-Pressure, High-Temperature (HPHT) Black Oil Viscosity Model, Z. Liu, R. Samuel, A.C. Gonzales, Y. Kang, Halliburton
In this paper, a field case was investigated using a commercial thermal and flow simulator. The effects of oil flow rate on wellbore temperature and pressure profiles were studied. An HPHT black-oil viscosity model was developed through the modification of Khan’s model. The HPHT viscosity data of different crude oils with various API gravities were used to determine the model constant through regression. The new viscosity model yields much higher accuracy, with possible significant impact on well feasibility in the HPHT regime.
Integrated 3D Method for Prediction of Mud Weight Window for Subsalt Well Sections, X. Shen, X. Hu, X. Zheng, W.B. Standifird, Halliburton
This paper presents an integrated 3D method for predicting the mud weight window. An example of applying the proposed method in the VK field in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico is presented. In this integrated 3D method, 3D-stress solutions obtained by using the finite-element method are used as input data to the 1D prediction tool.
Real-Time Data Monitoring Experience Results in Enhanced Safety and Efficiency, C. Harder, J. Sutler, BP America; S. Sawaryn, BP Exploration Operating Co; W. Hale, Special Aerospace Services
BP has explored extending the effectiveness of real-time monitoring centers by embedding them in a Collaborative Real Time Environment (CoRE). In its Gulf of Mexico operations, BP has been rigorously applying real-time data monitoring technologies on critical operations with the intent to enhance both safety and operational efficiency through more informed operational decision-making.
Use of Real-Time Downhole Data Helps Mitigate Operational Risks in Challenging Deepwater Bypass Operation, P. Chouquette, Baker Hughes; N. Seiler, Anadarko Petroleum
The need to flawlessly service deviated wells at depths greater than 25,000 ft will continue to present technical and economic challenges for deepwater operators. As technology advances, so does the ability to drill deeper and more complex 3D wells. This paper will highlight different stages of the bypass operation that benefitted from the use of real-time downhole data: torque, weight on bit, RPM and bending in making real-time operational decisions.
Using Model-Based Systems Engineering for Rig-Level Safety Automation, D. Hetherington, Asatte Press
Although model-based systems engineering (MSBE) techniques are well known in the aerospace and automotive industries, they are almost unknown in the drilling equipment industry. MBSE represents an opportunity to bring proven best practices from other industries to bear on the problems facing the makers of drilling equipment. This paper reviews the use of tools that implement standards-based approaches related to the ISO UML standard. The paper also reviews the alternative approach of creating a domain-specific modeling language for the problem.
Reducing Well Delivery Costs Through Practical Experience Gained Implementing an Integrated Drillship Design and Automation of Drilling Equipment, D. Wijning, E. Adams, Huisman Equipment
The HuisDrill 12000 and its predecessor drillships were designed around the dual-multipurpose tower. This approach resulted in a more compact, fuel-efficient vessel with less environmental impact and increased operational efficiencies. This study describes the development of the Huisdrill 12000 drillship innovations built around automation aimed at improving operational efficiencies, safety and reduced well delivery costs.
TECHNICAL SESSION XV: TUBULARS
Hardbanding Compatibility Test Program to Stem Tool Joint Failures Caused by Re-application of Incompatible Hardbanding, S.R. Koneti, S. Gokhale, T H Hill Associates
Often, hardbanding re-application is performed without checking the compatibility of the re-applied and previous hardbanding types. Different hardbanding types do not always work properly when applied over each other, which can lead to cracking, spalling and porosity of re-applied hardbanding. This paper presents case studies and lessons learned from the analysis of such failures.
Lubricants and Accelerated Test Methods for Expandable Tubular Application, D. Di Crescenzo, M. Shuster, Shell; A. Petlyuk, Houghton International; D. Ernens, D.H. Zijsling, R. Pasaribu, Shell
A number of commercially available products used in tubular expansion applications or with similar tribological characteristics have been tested, and a novel solid lubricant has been developed for tubular expansion applications. The lubricating film was developed to assure a long shelf life, the lubrication properties, and thermal and chemical stability.
Historical Advances in Drill Pipe Internal Coating Systems and Performance of Liquid vs Powder Applied Coating Systems, R.S. Lauer, NOV Tuboscope
The vast majority of drill pipe is internally coated with a polymeric coating system. Completion pipe, landing strings, etc, are increasingly utilizing internal coating technology to provide corrosion, hydraulic and scale mitigating benefits. There has been a transition in technology from those early coating systems to the newest technology. Several milestones define the technological advances in internal coating capabilities.
Assessing Casing Wear in the Absence of a Baseline Calliper Log, S.J. Sawaryn, BP Exploration Operating Co; P.D. Pattillo, Clover Global Solutions; C. Brown, V.M. Schoepf, BP Exploration Operating Co
Calliper logs provide valuable information on the shape and wear of casing and tubing strings at various times throughout their operational life. In turn, this information is used to determine the residual design strength. To clearly distinguish deformation and wear from deviations due to manufacturing tolerances, the caliper measurements can be compared with a baseline log run soon after the tubular strings have been run. However, a baseline log may not always be available. This paper addresses these situations and provides an assessment of what useful information can be obtained.
New Deepwater, High-Pressure Completion Tubular for Gulf of Mexico Maximizes Combined-Load Capability While Incorporating Proven Cost-Saving Features, T. Anderson, C. Fontenot, R. Davey, Chevron; J. Dugas, B. White, Quail Tools; K.A. Hamilton, C-FER Technologies; P.S. Beauchamp, L.C. Karlapalem, A. Muradov, J.N. Brock, NOV Grant Prideco
A two-year comprehensive effort to design, test, manufacture and deploy a new high-pressure completion tubular for Chevron’s deepwater Gulf of Mexico operations is presented. A major challenge was the design, testing and manufacture of a subsea completion string that would provide efficient hydraulics during the fracturing operations while ensuring mechanical and pressure integrity.
Successful Use of Aluminum Drill Pipe with Steerable Mud Motors: Case Study in Shale Plays, S. Menand, DrillScan US; J. Lehner, Alcoa Oil & Gas; N. Evans, A. Palmer, Nabors; A. Metcalfe, Penn Virginia
This paper presents key findings regarding the benefits of drilling using aluminum drill pipe in a mixed aluminum-steel string compared with a string using steel pipes only in typical shale gas well trajectories. Aluminum drill pipe is an excellent candidate to drill shale gas wells, not only to maximize horizontal length but also to enable higher weight on bit when sliding with a steerable mud motor.
Structural Interaction Between Rock Formation and Wellbore Components in a Highly Depleted Reservoir, A. Vasquez, O. Soreide, H. Nasvik, Statoil
Production of hydrocarbons from the Wilcox reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico is disadvantaged by low permeability and, hence, low well productivity. By introducing artificial lift methods, the production and drainage of hydrocarbons can be increased and prolonged. However, as a consequence of the well depletion, the reservoir rock experiences physical changes that leads to mechanical forces and possible failures on the completions components. In particular, the production casing can be subjected to high collapse forces. This work is aimed to estimate these forces and investigate the structural interaction between the reservoir and well completions during large depletion.
Brittle Longitudinal Splits of P-110 Couplings Due to Local Material Defects and Insufficient Control of Material Properties During Manufacturing of High Collapse P-110 Casing, S.R. Koneti, S.R. Gokhale, TH Hill Associates
Brittle longitudinal splits of P-110 couplings in shale operations cause immense financial loss to oil and gas operators. Unfortunately, there seems to be an increasing trend in these coupling failures, particularly in operations where high-collapse grades of P-110 casing is utilized. A common method employed by manufacturers to increase the collapse capacity of P- 110 material is to push the yield strength up, close to the maximum requirement specified in API Specification 5CT for P110 grade. Sometimes, the yield strength even exceeds the upper limit specified in API 5CT, which increases the hardness of the material, making the couplings more susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. This paper presents case studies of such split-coupling failures.
Casing Wear Factors: How Do They Improve Well Integrity Analyses?, A. Kumar, R. Samuel, Halliburton
Casing-wear factors form an integral part of casing-wear estimation techniques. However, the values of experimental wear factors do not match field conditions when predicted casing wear is compared with measured values. Hence, adjustments and manipulations are made to wear factors to match field data so that these calibrated values can be effectively applied for more accurate predictions. This has led to confusion regarding the fundamentals behind using wear factors for casing-wear analyses. This paper aims to bridge this knowledge gap and provides a comprehensive treatise on casing-wear factors and their underlying parameters.
A Model for Well Reliability Analysis Throughout the Life of a Well Using Barrier Engineering and Performance, B. Das, University of Houston/Bureau Veritas North America; R. Samuel, Halliburton
In this paper, the integrity of casing as a secondary barrier is studied, and a unique well reliability model is proposed. The reliability in this model depends on individual elements like casing design and ratings, as well as the conditions found in the well at the time of running and cementing the casing, drilling subsequent hole sections, and during production operations. The proposed reliability model incorporates casing design calculations, any reduction in strength foreseen, and induced loads due to drilling operations (casing wear).
TECHNICAL SESSION XVI: DRILLING DYNAMICS
Faster ROP in Hard Chalk: Proving a New Hypothesis for Drilling Dynamics, E. Akutsu, M. Roedsjoe, Det Norske; J. Gjertsen, M. Andersen, NOV; N. Reimers, M. Granhoey-Lieng, Tomax; E.A. Strom, K. Horvei, Halliburton
Large areas of the North Sea contain the Cretaceous period of sediments, which comprise a massive hard layer of chalk at HPHT conditions that historically has posed a major drilling risk and expense to operators in the area. This paper covers the engineering, planning and execution of a multi-well exploration program in this challenging area. To mitigate expected problems, an integrated team was gathered to thoroughly analyze drilling records and lessons learned from previous offset wells and re-engineer the drilling process with the aim of minimizing cost and uncertainty.
Investigating the Benefits of Induced Vibrations in Unconventional Horizontals via Nonlinear Drill String Dynamics Modeling, J.K. Wilson, Scientific Drilling International, Texas A&M University; G. Heisig, SPE, Scientific Drilling International.
Instigating motion of the drill string, particularly in the sections lying on the low side of the wellbore, can lead to substantial improvements in managing the two limiting factors of long horizontal wells: removal of formation cuttings from the borehole and frictional drag between non-rotating drill strings and the wellbore wall. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the fully coupled, 3D, non-linear behavior of drill strings under the action of induced vibrations. Specific focus is given to the dynamic characteristics of a drill string, during horizontal drilling operations, in long unconventional wells and how this behavior affects the success of the well.
For Better or Worse: Applications of the Transfer Matrix Approach for Analyzing Axial and Torsional Vibration, R.J. Shor, the University of Texas at Austin; M.W. Dykstra, O.J. Hoffmann, Shell International E&P; M. Coming, Chevron (formerly Shell International E&P)
The response of the drilling system to axial and torsional vibration inputs has a significant impact on drilling performance. Usually the goal is to minimize dynamic response to limit the effects of potentially damaging phenomena in the low-frequency range (e.g., bit bounce and torsional stick-slip) and high-frequency range (e.g., axial chatter and torsional resonance). Whether the intention is to maximize or minimize, a suitable mathematical model is required. The paper describes such a model and provides examples of how it can be used to engineer the dynamic response of the drilling system such that excitations are attenuated (for better) or amplified (for worse).
Drill Pipe Influence on Drilling Performance, C. Herbig, H. Oueslati, A. Hohl, H. Reckmann, D. Heinisch, R.C. Pessier, N. Silva, Baker Hughes; C. Castilho, D.S. Gozzi, Petrobras
In this paper, the drill pipe influence on drilling performance and vibration mitigation is studied. Statistics on the influence of stick-slip and ROP for various drill pipe sizes were created and compared. An extensive database containing drilling data from the past three years was used as the data source. A case study from Brazil provides an example where two drill pipes with different diameters were used, resulting in different dynamic behavior. To confirm and understand these observations, numerical time domain simulations were performed, analyzed, visualized and compared with results from the field.
A New Technique for Calculating Downhole Rotation Speed and Torque From Surface Measurements, A. Kyllingstad, National Oilwell Varco
This paper presents a novel technique that has been field-tested to provide accurate estimates of downhole variables rotation speed and torque. The estimates are based on drill string geometry and surface measurements of the same variables. The results indicate that the new method can be used as a reliable and low-cost technique for evaluating or validating the effect of various stick-slip mitigation tools.
Recent Advances in Soft Torque Rotary Systems (STRS), S. Dwars, Shell
Most rigs drilling for Shell have (STRS), which increases the stick-slip free drilling envelope. Weight on bit can go up, RPM can go down. Rate of penetration goes up. The frequency of unplanned trips for damaged bits and downhole tools goes down. From the vast amount of operational data collected, we learned that the technology could still be further improved. Modeling, simulation and lab scale models confirmed that the window for stick-slip free drilling can be substantially widened. RPM can go lower, WOB goes much higher. Another option is to keep these where they are but use slimmer drill pipe or a lower-weight BHA. Either way, we’ve pushed the limits for economically drilling extreme holes in ever more challenging places and formations.
Dynamic Soft String Model and Its Practical Application, S.Z. Miska, Z. Zamanipour, University of Tulsa; A. Merlo, Eni; M.N. Porche, National Oilwell Varco
In this paper, an improved dynamic soft string model is proposed that accounts for drill string motion during tripping operations in 2D and 3D wellbores. This mathematical model explains how to compute forces along a moving drill string or casing. The aims of this model are: 1) to analyze dynamic drill string behavior, 2) to estimate local contact forces and 3) to predict the effect of different tripping velocity profiles on axial and lateral contact forces. A system of equations for drill string translational motion is solved using numerical methods. A computer code has been developed for practical design calculations.
Freeing Differential Stuck-Pipe with Nitrogen Reduces Significantly Lost-in-Hole Drill Stings, N.R. Heitmann, E.C. Burgos, Schlumberger
This paper presents a rapid recovery solution to free terminally differential stuck pipe when conventional freeing procedures are not available or insufficient. This new method was recently applied in the Orinoco Belt, Venezuela, and saved several drill strings with MWD/LWD BHAs and averted loss of the open-hole sections drilled. The deployed nitrogen-assisted U-tubing process accomplishes the needed hydrostatic mud pressure reduction beyond other procedures and sets new standards to recover from differential stuck pipe risks when entering underpressured and depleted reservoirs.
Fully Coupled Non-Linear 3D Time-Domain Simulation of Drilling Dysfunctions Using a Multibody Dynamics Approach, A.S. Elliott, MSC Software; M. Hutchinson, Leader Drilling International
In multibody dynamics codes, all non-linear geometric and inertial effects are properly accounted for, with no restrictions on angular displacements or rates. Because true downhole working conditions are not known with high accuracy, the analytical models are parameterized and can be tuned to match whatever surface or downhole data are available. Robust and efficient drill string modeling and simulation to predict the dynamic response of the string and BHA prior to tripping in can improve bit life, reduce tool and string failures, enhance drilling performance and enable improved BHA design, while significantly reducing costs.
A Stochastic Model for an Active Over Passive Motion Compensator for Offshore Drilling Operations, A. Barr, Transocean
This work presents the development of a stochastic active over passive motion compensator model, method of analysis and results. The steps outlined in this paper define a method to evaluate the equipment and compare performance across a range of operating conditions using computational techniques. Novel combinations of computer modeling, statistical analysis and computational power provide an avenue to address the barriers to understanding the performance of the motion compensator in the field.
TECHNICAL SESSION XVII: DRILLING OPTIMIZATION II
The Effect of Borehole Pressure on the Drilling Process in Salt, D.A. Curry, A.M. Lourenco, L.W. Ledgerwood III, R.L. Maharidge, Baker Hughes; S. da Fontoura, N. Inoue, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro
This paper publishes the results of an integrated laboratory study of the effect of borehole pressure on drilling halite. Its results indicate the effect is small; increasing borehole pressure does not reduce penetration rates in halite as much as it does in other sedimentary rocks. The study included full-scale laboratory drilling tests, visual single-point cutter tests and triaxial compression tests. The drilling tests were performed using a PDC bit and a synthetic-based drilling fluid typical of field practice. The visual single-point cutter tests used a clear drilling fluid, enabling observation and video recording of the halite cutting process at elevated borehole pressures along with simultaneous measurement of the cutting forces. The presentation includes video clips from these tests.
Innovative Product Concepts and Drilling Practices Improve Bit and Reamer Performances in Harsh Drilling Environments, G. Mensa-Wilmot, J. Gagneaux, G.A. Woldtvedt, A. Osborn, Chevron
This paper will present new discussions on hole-opening efficiency, with specific emphasis on harsh environments. It moves away from the notion of optimization to an engineered solution approach. Factors and conditions, with influences on hole-opening success, will be identified and discussed. This approach will challenge some of the currently held positions on BHA design and compliance. The bit/reamer relationship and rock failure mechanisms will be revisited. Present positions on drilling parameter requirements, especially in harsh environments, will also be challenged. Current positions on reamer failure trends, which continue to drive their development, will also be challenged, based on field data.
Advanced FEA Modeling Delivers Solution for Designing a Dual Hole Opening BHA for a Single Directional Run, N. Nik Mohd Najmi, A.A. Soh, D. Gopalan, M.A. Zaba, B. James, B.B. Subroto, T. Omar, Schlumberger
The capability to recognize source and effects of shocks and vibrations enables users to optimize and redesign BHA configurations with optimized parameters prior to drilling the well, eliminating the traditional trial-and-error approach. The challenge during planning is the high dogleg severity (DLS) requirement, casing string constraint and the requirement to drill in one run. In ensuring the success of the campaign, a feasibility study was performed by gathering offset well data, analysis of the risks and capability matching of different tools.
Novel Workflows and Underreaming Measurements Reduce Risk by Supporting Decision Making, W. Rasheed, J. Thorogood, J.Y. Bernardini, Smart Wellbore Systems (Smart Reamer)
This paper presents novel well construction workflows and downhole measurements to improve the success rate of close-tolerance casing and cementing operations. Drilling engineering routinely involves “flipping the coin” and taking the risk of inferred underreaming. Considering the downtime that occurs across the industry, such decisions are not logical. So why are they still taken? This paper details workflows and operational measurements that lead to safer and more efficient outcomes. Decision making risk control is outlined. A recommendation is made for a controlled workflow incorporating “gates” to break routines. This supports the drilling engineer to consciously focus on a key operational gate that is a cause of downtime or operational risk.
Wired Near-Bit Underreamer Connects Measurement-While-Drilling Tools to Rotary Steerable System While Eliminating the Under Gauge Rat Hole at TD, E. Valverde, A. Goodwin, Weatherford
On a deepwater Gulf of Mexico well, the 18 1/8-in. and 16 ½-in. sections were simultaneously drilled and enlarged to 20-in. and 22-in., respectively. An intelligent underreamer was run directly above the RSS, below the MWD/LWD package. The use of an intelligent wired reamer in this application eliminated a round trip to ream the rathole and allowed the operator to reach planned TD to required target.
Activated Reamer At-Bit System Reduces Rathole to 3 ft in RSS Hole-Enlargement Applications, J.D. Tilley, J.G. Evans, S. Ravndal, Halliburton
A large IOC in Norway required a solution that enabled underreaming while drilling and could provide rathole reduction to less than 20 ft to ensure good casing seat while eliminating the dedicated run to enlarge the rathole. A new system has been developed for this application that allows under-reaming while drilling and can reduce the rathole to 3 ft for virtually any hole size. The system includes a conventional or wired underreamer that can be run above the LWD or above the RSS and an at-bit underreamer that can be run below the RSS.
The at-bit reamer can be opened by hydraulic or ball-assisted activation. At TD, the at-bit reamer is activated to enlarge the rathole between the upper underreamer and the bottom of the hole, thereby reducing the rathole to 3 ft.
New Quantitative, Analytical Approach Provides Rapid Identification and Diagnosis of Dysfunctional Bit Performance, R. Rahmani, NOV Wellbore Technologies; J.R. Smith, Louisiana State University
Real-time monitoring of drilling performance has proven valuable in evaluating drilling efficiency and detecting dysfunctions. Mechanical specific energy (MSE) trend monitoring is commonly used for this purpose. Calculating MSE requires an accurate measurement of the rate of penetration (ROP) and torque. Unfortunately, ROP measurement requires either steady-state conditions or significant averaging, and surface torque is not reliable as it can significantly differ from downhole torque created at the drill bit. This precludes the rapid detection and mitigation of drilling dysfunctions.
A complete analytical model for the ROP performance of PDC bits has been developed to support a more rapid identification of dysfunctions and formation changes and allow a more accurate calculation of efficiency.
TECHNICAL SESSION XVIII: CEMENTING AND ZONAL ISOLATION
Managed Pressure Cementing Enables Offshore Operator to Reach TD in Narrow-Margin Ultra-HP/HT Well In Malaysia, B. Tan, J. Gillies, A. Noh, Halliburton; K. Mohamed, F. Wahid, W. Bordessoulles, P. Jain, PETRONAS
This paper aims to share the experiences and best practices established from executing two managed-pressure cementing jobs on an ultra-ultra-HPHT well offshore Malaysia. The designs of HPHT wells are pushing the necessity for managed pressure drilling (MPD) due to their narrow-margin pressure profiles and close-tolerance annuli. A new cementing technique with the utilization of MPD equipment and processes allows for the wellbore to be displaced with a hydrostatically underbalanced mud after the casing string has landed, and then cemented with a hydrostatically underbalanced spacer and cement slurry.
Casing Collapse Strength Enhancement Due to Cement and Pipe Support via Modeling and Testing, P. Jammer, P.R. Hariharan, F.J. Klever, Shell
API 5C3 collapse strength formulas provide conservative estimates of collapse resistance and do not consider the supporting effect of cement sheath, steel or formation. Given updated industry safety requirements and the increasing complexity of wells, the ability to accurately predict casing collapse is a challenge. This study aims to address some of those challenges.
Fit-For-Purpose Acoustic Cement Evaluation Using Logging-While-Drilling in Deepwater, G.A. Fuller, Shell E & P; N. Gupta, M. Blyth, A. Aparicio Nava, Schlumberger
Using LWD sonic tools, logging can be performed through the casing strings on the same run and the results can be analyzed to confirm top of cement (TOC). The data in many cases seemed to show that the results agreed with the predicted TOC from the pumping data. The use of this tool for cement evaluation was further validated against cement bond long evaluation that was performed on deeper strings in example deepwater exploration wells. The paper will elaborate on how the integration of this technology can provide precise TOC evaluation and save operators considerable rig time per section.
Cement Displacement and Pressure Control Using Magneto-Rheological Fluids, S.D. Nair, Q. Wu, K. Cowan, E. van Oort, The University of Texas at Austin
A new cementing technique is presented using extensive laboratory studies and sophisticated magnetic field simulations where the rheological properties and the flow direction of the cement slurry can be controlled in real time to achieve more uniform displacements, even when casing is not optimally centralized. This new technique is based on the principles of magnetorheology, where an external magnetic field is applied to a cement slurry carrying magnetic particles. The magnetorheological slurry also achieves yield point values in the presence of an external magnetic field that are increased by several orders of magnitude compared with conventional cement slurries.
Simulated Pressure Drop When Circulating Fluids Past Liner Hanger Equipment in an Annular Configuration: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Studies and Experimental Validation, P. Gomes, M.J. Murray, A.T. Dondale, BP
This paper demonstrates the use of CFD to better identify opportunities for modifying the geometrical design of downhole tools to reduce pressure drop and improving the estimations of the annular pressure drop across liner hanger systems.
In this work, CFD was used to evaluate the pressure drop across a liner hanger system for several typical operation flow rates: 1bbl/min up to 5bbl/min. The overall pressure drop across the liner hanger section ranged from ~80 psi to ~550 psi, respectively. Simple geometric changes were then tested using CFD resulting in up to 40% pressure drop decrease across the tool, for those flow rates.
Studies of Cement Wiper Plugs Suggest New Deepwater Standards, M. Trogus, Shell International E&P; D.B. Farley, G.G. Gaspard, Weatherford
This paper reviews efforts to better understand cement plug performance and establish industry standards. Through laboratory studies, it examines material loss in actual deepwater applications and evaluates the effect on cementing plug wiping performance. These studies provide the basis of a selection process for wear-resistant materials.
A Case Study of Flexible/Expandable and Self-Healing Cement for Ensuring Zonal Isolation in a Shallow, Hydraulically Fractured Gas Well Onshore Thailand, J.A. Vargas, S. Taoutaou, A.A. Olutimehin, M. Vinaipanit, S. Ashraf, Schlumberger; S. Gilles, J. Asawakowitkorn, N. Kongpat, PTTEP
Zonal isolation is critical in achieving optimum, steady and safe production in every well. Exploration wells pose additional difficulty because formation pressures are not accurately known. This was the case in the Ratana field onshore Thailand. Flexible and expandable cements were selected to withstand the anticipated stresses generated from different loading cycles.
Calculation of Ultra-Lightweight Cement Slurries, R. Sharpe, Nabors Completion and Production Services Co.
This paper demonstrates that the emphasis on extremely accurate measurement of specific gravity, while very important for basic quality assurance and quality control, is overstated in its relationship to successful mixing and placement of ultra-lightweight (ULW) cements. The presumed sensitivity of ULW slurries to specific gravity is the result of absolute volume-based, cement slurry mass-balance arithmetic. By re-examining the implied mass-balance in relationship to the slurry liquid volume fraction and specific gravity of the ULW additives, it may be demonstrated that ULW cements are more stable than previously believed.